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From Wikipedia: A water well is an excavation or structure created in the ground — by digging, driving, boring or drilling to access water in underground aquifers. The well water is drawn via an electric submersible pump or a mechanical pump (eg from a water-pumping windmill). It can also be drawn up using containers, such as buckets, that are raised mechanically or by hand. Although not essential, a storage tank with a pressure of 40-60 psi is usually added to the system (after the pump), so the pump does not need to operate constantly.To reduce the electricity required to pump up the water, often, a cistern is also added along with a small second pump.

Wells can vary greatly in depth, water volume and water quality. Well water typically contains more minerals in solution than surface water and may require treatment to soften the water by removing minerals such as arsenic, iron and manganese.